Dalmatian adj : of or relating to Dalmatia or its inhabitants
1 a native or inhabitant of Dalmatia
2 a large breed having a smooth white coat with black or brown spots; originated in Dalmatia [syn: coach dog, carriage dog]
- alternative spelling of Dalmatian
The Dalmatian (lang-hr Dalmatiner) is a breed of dog, noted for its white coat with either black or liver spots. Although other color variations do exist, any color markings other than black or liver are a disqualification in purebred Dalmatians. The famous spotted coat is unique to the Dalmatian breed; no other purebred dog breed features the distinctive spotted markings. The breed takes its name from Croatia's Dalmatia region, where it is supposed to have originated.
BodyThis popular breed of dog is a well-muscled, mid-sized, elegant dog with excellent endurance. The Dalmatian is an 'approximately' square dog, with the length from forechest to buttocks the same measurement as from withers to the feet. Shoulder should be well laid back with the elbow falling directly under the tip of the shoulder blade. Rear angulation should match the front with the stifle "well" bent indicating good angulation in the rear. The feet are round and compact with well-arched toes. The nails are either white and/or the same color as the spots. The ears are thin, tapering toward the tip, set fairly high and carried close to the head.
SizeThe ideal Dalmatian should stand between 54 and 61 cm (19 and 24 inches) at the withers and weigh from 20 to 32 kg (45 to 70 pounds) fully grown. Breed standards for showing sometimes call for more specific sizes; the UK standard for instance, calls for a height between 22 and 24 inches (56-61 cm). Males are generally slightly larger than females.The female Dalmatian's gestation is about 2 months (60-64 days).
CoatThe Dalmatian is a breed whose heritage is hotly disputed by researchers, who have not come to an agreement on where this spotted dog originated. Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that the breed originated in Dalmatia. The Dalmatian is most certainly a dog of very ancient lineage that has come through the centuries virtually unchanged. Paintings of dogs resembling dalmatians running along-side chariots have been unearthed in Egyptian tombs. The breed has also been mentioned in the letters of a poet named Jurij Dalmatin, which date back to the mid-16th century. The Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy, boasts a fresco painted in 1360 which depicts a spotted dog that strongly resembles a modern-day dalmatian. It may be because of these appearances in art, literature, and writings of antiquity that many claim the Dalmatian first appeared in Europe, Asia and Africa. One reason the breed's origin is often attributed to Dalmatia is that the breed has frequently been found in the company of travelling Roma (sometimes called gypsies). Like his Roma masters, the breed is well known, but difficult to locate in one place. The first references to the breed by its current name, Dalmatian, occur in the mid-eighteen hundreds.
The duties of this ancient breed are as varied as their reputed ancestors. They were used as dogs of war, guarding the borders of Dalmatia and Croatia. To this day, the breed retains a high guarding instinct; although friendly and loyal to those the dog knows and trusts, it is often aloof with strangers and unknown dogs. Dalmatians have a strong hunting instinct and is an excellent exterminator of rats and vermin. In sporting, they have been used as bird dogs, trail hounds, retrievers, or in packs for boar or stag hunting. Their dramatic markings and intelligence have made them successful circus dogs throughout the years. Dalmatians are perhaps best known for their role as a fire-apparatus follower and as a firehouse mascot.
However, the Dalmatian's most important task has been his role as a coach or carriage dog, so called because they were formerly used to run in attendance on a coach. To this day, Dalmatians retain a strong affinity for horses, often naturally falling in behind a horse and cart in perfect position. The strong-bodied, clean-cut and athletic build of the dalmatians reflects their years as a coach dog; although rarely used in this capacity today. Their physical make-up is still ideally suited to road work. Like its ancestors, the modern Dalmatian is an energetic dog, with unlimited energy and stamina.
Association with firemenParticularly in the United States, the use of Dalmatians as carriage dogs was transferred to horse-drawn fire engines, although it is unclear why this link was not made in other countries. Today the Dalmatian serves as a firehouse mascot but, back in the days of horse-drawn fire carts, they provided a valuable service. Dalmatians and horses are very compatible, so the dogs were easily trained to run in front of the carriages to help clear a path and quickly guide the horses and firefighters to the fires. The dogs were sometimes also used as rescue dogs to locate victims in burning structures. Dalmatians are often considered to make good watchdogs and it is believed that Dalmatians may have been useful to fire brigades as guard dogs to protect a firehouse and its equipment. Fire engines used to be drawn by fast and powerful horses, a tempting target for thieves. So, Dalmatians were kept in the firehouse as deterrence to theft. The horses have long since gone, but the Dalmatians, by tradition, have stayed. As a result, in the U.S., Dalmatians are commonly known as firehouse dogs. Dalmatians are still chosen by many firefighters as pets, in honor of their heroism in the past. The Dalmatian is also associated, particularly in the United States, with Budweiser beer and the Busch Gardens theme parks, since the Anheuser-Busch company's iconic beer wagon, drawn by a team of magnificent Clydesdale horses, is always accompanied by a Dalmatian carriage dog. The giga-brewer maintains several teams at various locations, which tour extensively. According to Anheuser-Busch's website, Dalmatians were historically used by brewers to guard the wagon while the driver was making deliveries.
HealthDalmatians are a very old breed, often thought to be the very first type of dog for which man made deliberate attempts to selectively breed for specific characteristics. These characteristics were at first appearance, then other attributes such as stamina, endurance, and health. The result is a very prolific and long-lived breed of striking appearance, generally free from ailments common to other dogs such as hip dysplasia (almost unknown in purebred dalmatians). Most of their health problems result from the onset of old age; the average Dalmatian lives between 11 and 13 years, although some can live as long as 17 to 18 years http://www.geocities.com/midfloridadalmatianclub/questions.html. In their late teens, both males and females may suffer bone spurs and arthritic conditions.
DeafnessAn exception to Dalmatians' generally good health is a genetic disposition towards deafness. Deafness was not recognized by early breeders, so the breed was thought to be stupid. Even after recognizing the problem as a genetic fault, breeders did not understand the dog's nature, and deafness in Dalmatians continues to be a frequent problem.
Researchers now know that deafness in albino and piebald animals is caused by the absence of mature melanocytes in the inner ear http://www.doctorproctor.com/crcpap2.htm. This may affect one or both ears. The condition is also common in other canine breeds that share a genetic propensity for light pigmentation. This includes, but is not limited to bull terriers, Poodles, boxers, border collies and Great Danes. Similarly, Charles Darwin commented on the tendency of white, blue-eyed cats to be deaf http://www.centpharm.com/crcpap2.htm, while Waardenburg syndrome is the human analog. There is an accurate test called the BAER test, which can determine if the defect is present. Puppies can be tested beginning at five weeks of age. BAER testing is the only way of detecting unilateral deafness, and reputable breeders test their dogs prior to breeding.
Only dogs with bilateral hearing should be allowed to breed, although those with unilateral hearing, and even dogs with bilateral deafness, make fine pets with appropriate training. Research shows that Dalmatians with large patches of color present at birth have a lower rate of deafness, and breeding for this trait, which is currently prohibited in the breed standard, might reduce the frequency of deafness in the breed. This is not always true as there have been instances where patched Dalmatians have been found to have faulty hearing. One of leading reasons patches are a disqualifying factor in Dalmatians is to preserve the much prized spotted coat--the continual breeding of patched dogs would result in heavily patched Dalmatians with few spots.
Research concludes that blue-eyed Dalmatians have a greater incidence of deafness than brown-eyed Dalmatians, although an absolute link between the two characteristics has yet to be conclusively proven. Though blue-eyed Dalmatians are not necessarily deaf, many kennel clubs consider blue eyes to be a fault or even a disqualification, and some discourage the use of blue-eyed Dalmatians in breeding programs.
Kidney and bladder stonesDalmatians, like humans, the great apes, some New World monkeys, and guinea pigs, can suffer from hyperuricemia. The latter lack an enzyme called uricase, which breaks down uric acid. However, in Dalmatians, the deficit seems to be in liver transport. Uric acid can build up in joints and cause gout or bladder stones. These conditions are most likely to occur in middle-aged males. Males over 10 are prone to kidney stones and should have calcium intake reduced or take preventive medication.
Owners should be careful to limit the intake of purine by not feeding these dogs organ meats, animal by-products, or other high-purine ingredients in order to reduce the likelihood of stones. Healthy diets range from premium, all natural pet food brands to prescription diets. Hyperuricemic syndrome in Dalmatians responds to treatment with Orgotein, the veterinary formulation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1045695&ordinalpos=109&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
Crosses to English PointersHyperuricemia in Dalmatians (as in all breeds) is inherited. However, unlike other breeds of dog the "normal" gene for uricase is not present in the breed's gene pool at all. Therefore, there is no possibility of eliminating hyperuricemia among pure-bred Dalmatians. The only possible solution to this problem must then be crossing Dalmatians with other breeds in order to reintroduce the "normal" uricase gene.
This has led to the foundation of the "Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project", which aims to reintroduce the normal uricase gene into Dals by crossing them with English Pointers, to whom they are normally thought to be related and who have the normal uricase gene. This project was started in 1973 by Dr. Robert Schaible. The f1 hybrids did not resemble Dalmatians very closely. The f1s were then crossed back to pure-bred Dals. This breeding produced puppies of closer resemblance to the pure Dal. By the fifth generation in 1981 they resembled pure Dals so much that Dr. Schaible convinced the AKC to allow two of the hybrids to be registered along with pure-bred Dals. The Dalmatian Club of America's (DCA) board of directors supported this decision, however it quickly became highly controversial among the club members. A vote by DCA members opposed the registration of the hybrids, causing the AKC to ban registration to any of the dog's offspring.
At the annual general meeting of the DCA in May of 2006 the backcross issue was discussed again by club members. In June of the same year DCA members were presented with an opportunity to vote on whether to reopen discussion of the Dalmatian Backcross Project. The results of this ballot were nearly 2:1 in favor of re-examining support of the Dalmatian Backcross Project by the Dalmatian Club of America. This has begun with publication of articles presenting more information both in support of and questioning the need for this Project. As of May 2007, discussion is on-going.
PopularityThe Dalmatian breed experienced a massive surge in popularity as a result of the 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians written by British author Dodie Smith, and later due to the two Walt Disney films based on the book. The Disney animated classic released in 1961, later spawned a 1996 live-action remake 101 Dalmatians. In the years following the release of the second movie, the Dalmatian breed suffered greatly at the hands of irresponsible breeders and inexperienced owners. Many irreputable breeders and puppy mills cashed in on the breed's rising popularity, and began breeding high numbers of Dalmatians without first ensuring the health, quality, and temperament of the dogs being bred.
Many well-meaning enthusiasts purchased Dalmatians—often for their children—without educating themselves on the breed and the responsibilities that come with owning such a high-energy dog breed. Since Dalmatians were originally bred to run with horses, they require frequent exercise to keep them out of mischief. Many owners find themselves unable to cope with the breed's or the specimen's characteristics and cannot provide their dogs with adequate care. Dalmatians were abandoned in large numbers by their original owners and left with animal shelters. As a result, Dalmatian rescue organizations sprung up around the country to care for the unwanted dogs and find them new homes. Dalmatians subsequently developed an unfair reputation of being 'difficult', 'stupid', or 'high strung'.
dalmatian in Bosnian: Dalmatinac (pas)
dalmatian in Bulgarian: Далматин
dalmatian in German: Dalmatiner
dalmatian in Spanish: Dálmata (perro)
dalmatian in French: Dalmatien
dalmatian in Croatian: Dalmatinski pas
dalmatian in Indonesian: Dalmatian (anjing)
dalmatian in Italian: Dalmata
dalmatian in Hebrew: דלמטי
dalmatian in Lithuanian: Dalmatinas
dalmatian in Hungarian: Dalmata
dalmatian in Dutch: Dalmatiër
dalmatian in Japanese: ダルメシアン
dalmatian in Norwegian: Dalmatiner
dalmatian in Polish: Dalmatyńczyk
dalmatian in Portuguese: Dálmata (cão)
dalmatian in Russian: Далматин
dalmatian in Slovak: Dalmatínsky pes
dalmatian in Serbian: Далматинац
dalmatian in Serbo-Croatian: Dalmatinac (pas)
dalmatian in Finnish: Dalmatiankoira
dalmatian in Swedish: Dalmatiner
dalmatian in Thai: ดัลเมเชียน
dalmatian in Turkish: Dalmaçya köpeği